Here you will find solutions of many problems on spoj. If you want solution of some problem which is not listed in blog or have doubt regarding any spoj problem (which i have solved) or any programming concept (data structure) you can mail me @ raj.nishant360@gmail.com
And my humble request to you all that don't copy the code only try to understand the logic and algorithm behind the code. I have started this because if you tried as hard as you can and still can't find any solution to the problem then you can refer to this.
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Thursday, November 27, 2014

FIBOSUM-Fibonacci Sum

Fibonacci Sum

given below code is for fibosum spoj or fibonacci sum spoj.

here you should know how to calculate fibonacci number in log(n) time




#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define MOD 1000000007
#define ULL unsigned long long 
void mul(ULL a[][2] , ULL b[][2])
{
    ULL res[2][2];
    memset(res , 0 , sizeof res);
    for(int i = 0 ; i < 2 ; i ++)
        for(int j = 0 ; j < 2 ; j++)
            for(int k = 0 ; k < 2 ; k++)
                res[i][j] = (res[i][j] + a[i][k]*b[k][j]) % MOD;
    for(int i = 0 ; i < 2 ; i++)
        for(int j = 0 ; j < 2 ; j++)
            a[i][j] = res[i][j];
}
ULL  power( ULL  n)
{
    ULL  fib[2][2] = { {1 , 1} , { 1 , 0}},temp[2][2] = { {1 , 0 } , { 0 , 1}};
    while(n)
    {
        if(n&1)
            mul(temp , fib);
        mul(fib , fib);
        n>>=1;
    }
    return temp[0][1];
}
int main()
{
    int t;
    cin>>t;
    while(t--)
    {
        ULL l , r;
        cin>>l>>r;
        cout<<(power(r+2) - power(l+1) + MOD)%MOD<<endl;
    }
    return 0;
}